For most varieties of bone nosology, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory substances are prescribed. Common representatives of the group:
The mechanism of action of non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is blocking the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, type 2, which leads to disruption of the formation of prostaglandin, reducing the severity of the inflammatory reaction. Inhibition of 2-cyclooxygenase in the intestine leads to impaired mucus secretion, aggravation of gastric ulcers, the likelihood of the formation of erosion, colitis, enterocolitis, gastritis.
Selective NSAIDs selectively block 1-cyclooxygenase, and therefore do not affect the gastrointestinal tract. Representatives of the group is nimesulide, nise. The creation of such medicines should have addressed the issue of the possibility of long-term use of anti-inflammatory drugs for pain relief of the joints, but other negative reactions were revealed – the destruction of hepatocytes with an increase in liver size against the background of long-term use of drugs.
According to statistics, anti-inflammatory drugs are regularly taken about 30 minutes by people of the world. About 300 million more use these funds periodically. The share of the pharmaceutical market, which is occupied by NSAIDs in Russia – 30%. We will not talk about the fact that these painkillers with joint pain are prescribed daily by the therapist to the patients in batches. Older people are well acquainted with diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketorolac, used to relieve pain in diseases of the joints, spine.
What painkillers for joint pain: osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease that characterizes the destruction of interosseous articular cartilage, decreased bone density, bone growth, damage to surrounding muscles, ligaments, tendons.
The disease is indicative of the analysis of the effectiveness of the use of anti-inflammatory drugs and chondroprotectors. Therapy of osteoarthritis 2, 3 degrees is carried out by NSAIDs. With grade 4, surgical treatment is necessary.
Diclofenac for pain in the joints is prescribed for 10 days, followed by a break to relieve inflammation and eliminate pain. The popularity of the destination means due to the presence of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic effects.
Local anesthetics – joint painkillers
Local anesthetics are used to receive nociotseptive information in the central nervous system. Allow to reduce the severity of pain sensitivity. Drugs normalize microcirculation in the pathological area, which allows to improve the metabolism, remove the inflammatory process.
Local anesthetics – a group of substances that cause a temporary loss of tissue sensitivity due to loss of nerve impulses. Used for regional, infiltration, surface anesthesia for surgical and dental examinations. For joint pains, the following local anesthetics are used:
Anticonvulsants, anticonvulsants are used to irritate nociceptors, stimulate peripheral nerves, which contributes to the development of hyperalgesia. The preparations block the impulses of the central and peripheral neurons. The following drugs come to the fore in pathology:
Medicines in this category are selected by the doctor. They are released by prescription.
A strong painkiller for pain in the joints is prescribed for osteoarthritis of 3-4 degrees, fractures. Opioids are used for pain relief.
All painkillers for joint pain
The huge commercial offer of various means of pain in the joints does not mean quality treatment. The authors of the site made an attempt to classify existing drugs for the treatment of inflammatory joint changes:
- Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs;
- Muscle relaxants;
- Local injections;
- Epidural anesthesia;
About NSAIDs have been written above, but we arrange the drugs according to the degree of decreasing anti-inflammatory action:
- Ketanov (ketorolac, ketalgin;
- Artoxan (to tenoxicam);
- Diklonat (naklofen, ortofen, voltaren);
- Butadion (phenylbutazone).
Gradation according to the degree of extinction of the anti-inflammatory action:
- Artoxan (to tenoxicam);
- Ketoprofen, ibuprofen, phenylbutazone;
Selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs act only in therapeutic dosage. With increasing concentration, the selectivity decreases.
Coaxibs have a high degree of selectivity in blocking cyclooxygenase-2:
Pharmaceutical studies have shown that the use of funds leads to a slight effect on the gastrointestinal tract, which excludes a side effect on the intestines.
NSAID classification can be carried out on the basis of the application point:
- Predominant accumulation in peripheral tissues, joints – indomethacin, diclofenac;
- Anti-inflammatory with central activity – paracetamol;
- The simultaneous effect on the central nervous system and periphery is artoxan (to tenoxicam).
All sources describe the negative effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the gastrointestinal tract, but the toxic effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the kidneys, liver, and serious allergic reactions cannot be ignored. Pain pills from the joints in osteoarthritis should be taken throughout life, since the disease causes irreversible damage.
To prevent the negative effects of anti-inflammatory drugs, we recommend that you follow some important principles:
- The combination of drugs with proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, omez), H2-histamine blockers, gastroprotectors;
- The use of enteric-soluble forms;
- Parenteral, rectal, local administration used for different purposes. It should not be combined at the same time different forms of NSAIDs;
- Rectal ointment can reduce the general toxic effect. When they receive pain relief joints is achieved after 20 minutes.
There are 2 forms of diclofenac on the market – rapid, retarded.
Retard (revodina, dicloberl) is slowly released, which allows you to form a prolonged effect when taken 1 time per day.
Rapid (voltaren) form provides a therapeutic effect after 15 minutes. Allows you to quickly remove articular and other types of pain.
Anesthetic Joint Ointment
For diseases of the joints, proposed by WHO, 4 groups of drugs for external use are presented:
- Preparations based on hot pepper capsaicin: nicoflex, capsin, balm “golden star”, finalgon, capsicum, espol;
- Salicylic acid based products: Ben-gay, bom-benge, Viprosal, efkamon, nizvisal;
- Homeopathic ointment for the joints;
- Local forms of chondroprotectors.
Research on the effectiveness of the ointment for the joints and muscles has not been carried out; therefore, it is impossible to evaluate the rationality of using these agents.
Classification of anti-inflammatory ointments:
- Bystrumgel, ketonal gel, fastum gel. Made on the basis of ketoprofen. For the action of these tools recommended effective pain relief;
- Nise, Nimesulide, Nimulide;
- Gel Dolobene on the basis of dimethyl sulfoxide;
- Long, Relief using ibuprofen. In addition to anti-inflammatory has warming properties.
Anti-inflammatory drugs are used on the basis of snake and bee venom.
Warming and vasodilator ointments for joint pain
The list of warming ointments for joint pain:
- Camphor cream, eucalyptus, clove;
- Nikofleks cream;
Do not use local forms of ointments in the presence of wounds and cuts. Ointments for local inflammation, erosion, weeping are contraindicated. It is impossible to use local forms containing snake or bee venom for a long time.
All warming ointments for the joints are applied no earlier than one hour before going out.
From folk remedies we suggest to get acquainted with the Ural ointment on the basis of table salt, mustard powder. After mixing the ingredients to the consistency of the paste, you should add the ingredients in a glass dish, close the lid, insist 12 hours. Lubricate the joint area at night.
Anesthetic Joint Plaster
Types of patches for joints:
- Based on NSAIDs and analgesics;
- Containing chondroprotectors;
- Local painkillers;
- Applications with dimexidum.
Modern development – transdermal system based on 5% lidocaine. Contains a non-woven, elastic, soft layer of polymers, combined with anesthetic esters. The patch is applied in the form of applications. Apply to the damaged area of the skin. According to the label – up to 3 patches can be applied simultaneously on joints for up to 12 hours.
Anesthetic ointments and gels for the joints can be prepared independently on the basis of the transdermal system. Oncologists have been using opioid patches with buprenorphine and fentanyl for several years. The local form of administration allows you to gradually allocate a strong painkiller, which creates the necessary concentration of the drug in the blood.
Versatis (transdermal system with lidocaine) is used in Russia to relieve pain syndrome with joint damage, bone injuries. Scientific studies have shown that 2-3% of the total amount of lidocaine is absorbed by the upper layers of the skin. The plaster does not have a systemic effect, since the concentration in the blood is minimal.
Nanoplast forte with arthritis
Nanoplast forte – powder based on rare earth metals. Made using modern nanotechnology, which helps to restore damaged tissue during the destruction of bones, muscles, ligaments.
Apply a patch for bruises, abrasions, bruises. The tool is characterized by anti-inflammatory, relaxing, warming, analgesic effect. The design assumes the presence of a magnetic field to improve the local lymph and blood circulation.
Indications for use of nanoplast forte:
- Cervical osteochondrosis;
- Intercostal neuralgia;
- Soft tissue contusion;
- Independent dislocations of the joints;
The composite components of the patch provide a combined effect, which allows the use of the tool not only for inflammatory diseases of the joints. For ease of application, the patch is available in 2 sizes: 9×12, 7×9 cm. The design of the patch does not limit the range of motion, as it consists of elastic fabrics.